Solar power plant layout pdf

What is solar PV system? Solar photovoltaic system or Solar power system is one of renewable energy system which uses PV modules to convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity generated can be either stored or used directly, fed back into grid line or combined with one or more other electricity generators or more renewable energy source.

Solar PV system is very reliable and clean source of electricity that can suit a wide range of applications such as residence, industry, agriculture, livestock, etc. Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads appliances.

Multiply the total appliances Watt-hours per day times 1. Result of the calculation is the minimum number of PV panels. If more PV modules are installed, the system will perform better and battery life will be improved. If fewer PV modules are used, the system may not work at all during cloudy periods and battery life will be shortened. Example: A house has the following electrical appliance usage: One 18 Watt fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast used 4 hours per day. One 60 Watt fan used for 2 hours per day.

One 75 Watt refrigerator that runs 24 hours per day with compressor run 12 hours and off 12 hours. The system will be powered by 12 Vdc, Wp PV module. The inverter size should be about W or greater. English Thai. Home About Leonics Contact us Site map. Leonics Support. The first step in designing a solar PV system is to find out the total power and energy consumption of all loads that need to be supplied by the solar PV system as follows:.

Different size of PV modules will produce different amount of power. To find out the sizing of PV module, the total peak watt produced needs. The peak watt Wp produced depends on size of the PV module and climate of site location. For Thailand, the panel generation factor is 3. To determine the sizing of PV modules, calculate as follows:. An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input rating of the inverter should never be lower than the total watt of appliances.

The inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery. For stand-alone systems, the inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of Watts you will be using at one time.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Takura Kutsoma. The total number of solar panel required and the different parameters of the solar panel estimated using the solar intensity for Zimbabwe. A financial overview with possible income datasheet is also to be included in the report.

For better efficiency and to utilize the inverter and other components. In each group, panels are further divided into 64 strings parallel connection.

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So we will be having groups of this configuration to generate a total power of MW so the total number of PV modules required is And in each group, the 64 strings are connected in parallel to increase the current. Electricity grids operate at much higher voltages of the order of tens or hundreds of thousands of volts, so transformers are incorporated to deliver the required output of the grid. For string protection 2.

Panel mount fuse holder 3. In-line fuse holders 4. Load break disconnect switches 2. Finger- safe power distribution blocks 2. Circuit breaker 2. Bar contractor 3. Insulation monitoring device The safety and protection of the modules and plant equipments, protective gears from Schneider Electric have been considered for maximum benefits and used as reference in this paper.

Related Papers.We've made some changes to EPA. Most solar projects follow a common project development pathway from a project's conception to its completion. This page details the major steps you will take along your pathway. Each step includes various resources and tools to assist you in achieving the development of your solar project.

For a concise description and visual representation of the pathway, see this print-friendly roadmap. Many of the following links exit the site Exit. It gives your local government direction and affirms your intent to both you and your stakeholders. One of the best indicators of project development success includes use of a solar project development plan. The plan will detail your local government's specific set of circumstances and chart a pathway from start to finish towards realizing the development of your solar project.

It is critically important to understand your solar site opportunities, which starts with collecting site information and utility data. This information becomes critical when seeking project proposals from developers and is the basis for conducting site assessments to identify the most suitable sites.

Once you have collected the necessary information and data regarding your solar site opportunities, the next step is to develop and issue a solar Request for Proposals RFP.

An RFP is a solicitation for products and services that outlines the general terms and conditions of request from market suppliers. For solar, this can involve a wide array of requirements. If you are interested in making claims about using renewable energy, be sure to retain the Renewable Energy Certificates RECs from your project. The following resources will help guide you in putting together your RFP. An RFP will generally result in one or more project proposals from developers.

You are in the home stretch! After you identify the best project opportunity, it is time to sign a contract. Once you select a project and sign a contract, be sure to let EPA know so we can share your success with your peers. Also, you should consider issuing a press release to publicize your future project more broadly. Once your project is built and generating solar power, EPA would be excited to share your success.

solar power plant layout pdf

Send us an email and provide us a photo of your new project. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem.

solar power plant layout pdf

Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. Contact Us. Resources Details Video: Module 1 — Goal Setting and Clarification This training discusses different types of goal setting for renewable energy development, and the importance of clarifying your priorities as your set out to achieve those goals.

Guidance: Guidance for Setting a Renewable Energy Goal This EPA document provides a framework to local governments for why and how to set a renewable energy goal and discusses the key considerations and benefits of doing so.

At the end of the document, there is a three-page worksheet to help you take actionable steps toward setting a renewable energy goal. It also has several iterations of their energy plans, GHG inventories, and resources for local governments in NY that are updating their land use plans.AfterShip is addressing a major pain point for ecommerce sites and is providing a service that can enhance customer serv.

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Solar Project Development Pathway & Resources

I recommend it to anyone who wants add some automatic improvements to their store. Aftership Returns Center has been the most helpful app on the Shopify site.

Before getting this, I was having a very dif. Always love a good app that helps business owners leverage on automation, saving us time. It is essential for making better the position of both the client and the sellerI think its really cool that they make is 1000 times easier for our customers to create their returns if need be. Absolutely love this app. It has been so great for building a rock solid customer service strategy with our consumers. AfterShip is an essential app in my dropshipping setup.

It makes my life extremely easy. You can massively reduce the am. It is very easy to install and to incorporate to shopify and eBay. It actually allowed me to help a customer to remind h. This is very useful app.All-in, play or not. To Qualify From Group - Team to progress to Qualifying Round from Preliminary Round will be deemed winner.

NHL To Win Conference - The team that progresses to the Stanley Cup Final will be deemed the winner. Series winner is team with highest combined score from both tests. If both teams finish with a tied aggregate score then the current holders will be deemed the winner.

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Quarter with highest combined score of both teams will be deemed the winner. If there is a tie for highest scoring quarter then bets are settled as a tie. The First quarter must be completed for bets to have action. If quarter ends in a tie then bets will be settled at the tie price if offered.

All race bets are settled on the official classification from the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), the sport's governing body, at the time of the podium presentation.

Each participant is priced to be the top driver over the Formula 1 season in accordance with Drivers Championship standings, and rules as specified by the FIA.

Each participant is priced to be the top constructor over the Formula 1 season in accordance with Constructors Championship standings, and rules as specified by the FIA. Minimum 16 races must take place for bets to stand. All drivers who start the formation lap are deemed as runners.

The podium positions will be used to determine 1st, 2nd and 3rd for betting purposes. Official qualifying times as recorded by the FIA will be used for settlement. For Fastest Qualifier, times recorded in the third phase count. If for some reason the third phase does not take place we will settle on the official grid as formed by the FIA.

However, qualifying time penalties (as specified by the FIA) will. Drivers must start the first phase of qualifying for bets to stand. For fastest in qualifying session 1 and 2, drivers must start the specified phase of qualifying for bets to stand.

The result for settlement is at the time of the podium presentation. If both drivers fail to complete the race then the driver completing the most laps will be deemed the winner. If both drivers retire on the same lap then bets will be settled on the official classification at the time of podium presentation. All cars will be deemed as runners. A Safety Car Period is defined as the need for the Safety Car to run in front of the leading car during a specified race.

Should the race start under the Safety Car, then all bets concerning the Safety Car market will be settled as Yes. If the race finishes under Safety Car conditions but the safety car has not had time to get to the front of the leading car this market will be settled as Yes.

Virtual Safety Car periods do not count. The winner is the driver achieving the highest placing at the time of the podium presentation.

If all drivers in the group fail to be classified then the driver completing the most laps will be deemed the winner.Statistics Based on Ranks. Suppose we asked a sample of respondents to indicate their interest in watching different sports on a 4-point scale with the explicit labels (1) always, (2) usually, (3) sometimes, and (4) never interested.

solar power plant layout pdf

Obviously, we can assume that the response sometimes interested is indicative of less interest than always interested, and so on.

Thus, we could rank the respondents with regard to their expressed interest in, for example, watching football. When categorical variables can be interpreted in this manner, there are several additional indices that can be computed to express the relationship between variables.

Detailed discussions of the Spearman R statistic, its power and efficiency can be found in Gibbons (1985), Hays (1981), McNemar (1969), Siegel (1956), Siegel and Castellan (1988), Kendall (1948), Olds (1949), or Hotelling and Pabst (1936). Kendall tau is equivalent to the Spearman R statistic with regard to the underlying assumptions.

It is also comparable in terms of its statistical power. However, Spearman R and Kendall tau are usually not identical in magnitude because their underlying logic, as well as their computational formulas are very different.

Siegel and Castellan (1988) express the relationship of the two measures in terms of the inequality:More importantly, Kendall tau and Spearman R imply different interpretations: While Spearman R can be thought of as the regular Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient as computed from ranks, Kendall tau rather represents a probability.

Specifically, it is the difference between the probability that the observed data are in the same order for the two variables versus the probability that the observed data are in different orders for the two variables. Kendall (1948, 1975), Everitt (1977), and Siegel and Castellan (1988) discuss Kendall tau in greater detail. Two different variants of tau are computed, usually called taub and tauc.

These measures differ only with regard as to how tied ranks are handled. In most cases these values will be fairly similar, and when discrepancies occur, it is probably always safest to interpret the lowest value. The Gamma statistic is preferable to Spearman R or Kendall tau when the data contain many tied observations.

How Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Works

Thus, Gamma is basically equivalent to Kendall tau, except that ties are explicitly taken into account. Detailed discussions of the Gamma statistic can be found in Goodman and Kruskal (1954, 1959, 1963, 1972), Siegel (1956), and Siegel and Castellan (1988). Multiple response variables or multiple dichotomies often arise when summarizing survey data.

The nature of such variables or factors in a table is best illustrated with examples. As part of a larger market survey, suppose you asked a sample of consumers to name their three favorite soft drinks.

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Also, a wide variety of soft drinks will most likely be named. The next question is how to enter the responses into a data file.

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Suppose 50 different soft drinks were mentioned among all of the questionnaires. This method of coding the responses would be very tedious and "wasteful. Alternatively, we could set up three variables, and a coding scheme for the 50 soft drinks. Then we could enter the respective codes (or alpha labels) into the three variables, in the same way that respondents wrote them down in the questionnaire. To produce a table of the number of respondents by soft drink we would now treat Resp.Pixlee is a visual marketing platform that uses user-generated content from Instagram, Facebook, and more.

It offers a free Instagram analytics app, which would send you a weekly report. While it does not provide as much data as other free Instagram analytics tools, it calculates your Instagram influence score, which few tools offer.

Your score is calculated by an algorithm which takes into account metrics such as your network size, engagement, and community trends.

Tip: If you are using Buffer for Business, you already have access to some basic Instagram analytics such as top posts and metrics graphs. I thought it might be helpful to share a little about how we use Instagram as a marketing tool and how we track our Instagram performance at Buffer. Brian Peters, our digital marketing strategist, uses the various content formats for different marketing purposes.

Our Instagram posts are for driving brand awareness and engagement while our Instagram Stories and live videos are for sharing educational content. Instead, each brand has their own perfect time to post. With Instagram analytics, you can find your perfect posting times. With Instagram Insights from the Instagram app, you can tell the days when your followers are most active and the average times they are on Instagram on a typical day. For instance, our followers seem to be most active on Sunday and from about 9 pm to 6 am SGT (or 8 am ET to 5 pm ET, working hours in the East Coast) for most days of the week.

Using the Instagram Insights, you can easily tell which are your top posts and stories based on impressions, reach, and engagement. Once you have sorted your top posts, do you notice any trends. For instance, our giveaway posts tend to generate the most comments while user-generated landscape photos usually receive the most engagement.

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To drive more engagement, we can continue to post landscape photos from our community. For example, if most of your followers are females aged 35-44 who like to design, can you create content that resonates with them more than the rest of your followers.

You can also use your Instagram Stories data to improve your stories. Instagram Insights from the Instagram app provides data such as impressions, exits, and replies, which you can use to tell better stories. For example, our story on creating a custom graphic within Canva received more impressions than other recent stories, and our Instagram Stories takeover by HubSpot on productivity tips received more replies than other recent stories.

We can also dive into a particular story: Most people exited our video marketing stats story at the first photo so perhaps we could work on the headline for the next story.

What does your Instagram Stories data tell you. Is there a type of stories that tends to do better than the rest. Is there a common point when most of your followers exit your stories. Since Instagram allows only one link (in the bio), marketers would usually have a call-to-action (CTA) in their Instagram posts to direct followers to the link in their bio. You could change your CTA on a weekly basis and see if the number of website clicks increases.

As a refresher, website clicks are the number of taps on the link in your bio. Alternatively, you could use Bitly or similar link shorteners with tracking capabilities for the link in your bio to track the number of clicks. With the wealth of data available to us marketers through the numerous Instagram analytics tools, we can be more data-driven with our Instagram marketing than ever before.

Combined with our understanding of our followers, these Instagram insights can enable us to create more valuable and engaging content for our audience.

How have you been measuring your Instagram metrics. How have you been using your Instagram insights to improve your Instagram marketing.


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